During this forty-year period, two popes—one in Avignon and one in Rome—claimed rulership over the Church. The term "Europe" is first used for a cultural sphere in the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century. Europe covers about 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second smallest continent (using the seven-continent model). However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. EU-Länder, in denen der Euro nicht verwendet wird. [174], The social revolutions sweeping through Russia also affected other European nations following The Great War: in 1919, with the Weimar Republic in Germany, and the First Austrian Republic; in 1922, with Mussolini's one party fascist government in the Kingdom of Italy, and in Atatürk's Turkish Republic, adopting the Western alphabet, and state secularism. [208] Between 2004 and 2013, more Central and Eastern European countries began joining, expanding the EU to 28 European countries, and once more making Europe a major economical and political centre of power. Riparo Mochi (Italy), Geissenklösterle (Germany), and Isturitz (France)[50][51], The European Neolithic period—marked by the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock, increased numbers of settlements and the widespread use of pottery—began around 7000 BCE in Greece and the Balkans, probably influenced by earlier farming practices in Anatolia and the Near East. [67][68] Christianity was legalised by Constantine I in 313 CE after three centuries of imperial persecution. Although the schism was eventually healed in 1417, the papacy's spiritual authority had suffered greatly. The exception is Benedict of Nursia, who had already been declared "Patron Saint of all Europe" by Pope Paul VI in 1964. Structural change in Europe´s geo-economy." [42] In 1958, the Soviet Geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary between the Europe and Asia be drawn in textbooks from Baydaratskaya Bay, on the Kara Sea, along the eastern foot of Ural Mountains, then following the Ural River until the Mugodzhar Hills, and then the Emba River; and Kuma–Manych Depression,[43] thus placing the Caucasus entirely in Asia and the Urals entirely in Europe. Vertrag von Lissabon. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2018[update]. As for the animals, in many parts of Europe most large animals and top predator species have been hunted to extinction. Albanese Ginammi Alessandro, Conte Giampaolo, Greek Bailouts in Historical Perspective: Comparative Case Studies, 1893 and 2010|The Journal of European Economic History, 2 2016, This page was last edited on 30 March 2021, at 22:44. The former is a land unto itself in the northern ocean which is counted as part of Europe, while the latter are upland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off. The main natural vegetation cover in Europe is mixed forest. As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008. [254] Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc. PoPulation – Global Mapping International, "Assassin Gavrilo Princip gets a statue in Sarajevo", "The Treaty of Versailles and its Consequences", "Los Angeles Times: Archives – Fourth of Serbia's Population Dead", "Asserts Serbians Face Extinction; Their Plight in Occupied Districts Worse Than Belgians', Says Labor Envoy", "Appeals to Americans to pray for Serbians", "Adolf Hitler: Rise of Power, Impact & Death", "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution", "Groundbreaking ceremony for bridge over Dardanelles to take place on March 18", "State of Europe's Forests 2007: The MCPFE report on sustainable forest management in Europe", "Paleolithic Man and his Environment in Malta", World Economic Outlook Database–April 2017, "The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England", Appendix B: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, "EU data confirms eurozone's first recession", Thanks to the Bank it's a crisis; in the eurozone it's a total catastrophe, "Global Markets Shudder: Doubts About U.S. Economy and a Debt Crunch in Europe Jolt Hopes for a Recovery", "European Leaders Try to Calm Fears Over Greek Debt Crisis and Protect Euro", "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database", "White Europeans: An endangered species? Josef Wasmayer "Wetter- und Meereskunde der Adria" (1976), pp 5. The Gulf Stream not only carries warm water to Europe's coast but also warms up the prevailing westerly winds that blow across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean. Between 4500 and 3000 BC, these central European neolithic cultures developed further to the west and the north, transmitting newly acquired skills in producing copper artifacts. The European Union is now the largest economy in the world. [88] The Empire was weakened following the defeat at Manzikert and was weakened considerably by the sack of Constantinople in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade. [217] Languages in adjacent areas show significant overlaps (such as in English, for example). Economic instability, caused in part by debts incurred in the First World War and 'loans' to Germany played havoc in Europe in the late 1920s and 1930s. Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy, humanism and rationalism under Aristotle, Socrates and Plato; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer;[61] in drama with Sophocles and Euripides, in medicine with Hippocrates and Galen; and in science with Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes. Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry. The opening of the Iron Curtain at the Pan-European Picnic then set in motion a peaceful chain reaction, at the end of which the Eastern bloc, the Warsaw Pact and communism collapsed and the Cold War ended. 2003. In the remote regions of north-western Iberia and the middle Pyrenees the power of the Muslims in the south was scarcely felt. The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development. The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom (or more specifically Latin Christendom), as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam, as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe.[272]. [168], Russia was plunged into the Russian Revolution, which threw down the Tsarist monarchy and replaced it with the communist Soviet Union. [182][183][184] The Soviet invasion of Poland started on 17 September and Poland fell soon thereafter. Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in 1935 and 1936. The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community between six Western European states with the goal of a unified economic policy and common market. [243] The western states moved to link their economies together, providing the basis for the EU and increasing cross border trade. On 24 September, the Soviet Union attacked the Baltic countries and later, Finland. [164], Two world wars and an economic depression dominated the first half of the 20th century. [154] The year 1859 saw the unification of Romania, as a nation-state, from smaller principalities. This number includes Siberia, (about 38 million people) but excludes European Turkey (about 12 million). Asia. Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe from the 9th to the 12th centuries, with a population of approximately 400,000. Two other language families reside in the North Caucasus (termed Northeast Caucasian, most notably including Chechen, Avar, and Lezgin; and Northwest Caucasian, most notably including Adyghe). "[115], The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual movement during the 18th century promoting scientific and reason-based thoughts. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe. The two centuries that followed are known as the pax romana, a period of unprecedented peace, prosperity, and political stability in most of Europe. Der 19. [275], Christianity, including the Roman Catholic Church,[276][277] has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilisation since at least the 4th century,[278][279][280][281] and for at least a millennium and a half, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture, even though the religion was inherited from the Middle East. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century and spread throughout Europe. In May 1940, Germany attacked France through the Low Countries. [2][3] The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities (or with the exception of Cape Verde and probably São Tomé and Príncipe, depending on context), but there are significant minorities, such as the White South Africans in South Africa. [85] The primary source of culture in this period came from the Roman Catholic Church. The EU established a parliament, court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency. The most densely populated country in Europe (and in the world) is the microstate of Monaco. Land relief in Europe shows great variation within relatively small areas. West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the 1950s. For other uses, see. Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilisation, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science. There are frequent summer droughts in this region. Anders sah die Situation für die staatlichen Gläubiger aus: Im ersten Hilfspaket vom Mai 2010 hatten der IWF 30 Mrd. [253] Among the continents, Europe has a relatively high population density, second only to Asia. [25] It has a higher ratio of coast to landmass than any other continent or subcontinent. Tudor Cornwall: portrait of a society. [282][283] In 2012 Europe had the world's largest Christian population.[8]. [246] In 2010, fears of a sovereign debt crisis[247] developed concerning some countries in Europe, especially Greece, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. Helped by the economic crisis, social instability and the threat of communism, fascist movements developed throughout Europe placing Adolf Hitler in power of what became Nazi Germany.[180][181]. The second most popular religion is Islam (6%)[284] concentrated mainly in the Balkans and Eastern Europe (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Cyprus, Turkey, Azerbaijan, North Caucasus, and the Volga-Ural region). Thomas E. Woods and Antonio Canizares, 2012, "How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization," Reprint edn., Washington, DC: Regnery History, single federation encompassing much of the continent, Boundaries between the continents of Earth, states which straddle the border between Europe and Asia, England tried unsuccessfully to invade Spain, German-speakers from all over Eastern Europe, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Area and population of European countries, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (nominal), List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (PPP), Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, List of sovereign states by date of formation, Names of European cities in different languages, List of European cities by population within city limits, Largest urban areas of the European Union, Financial and social rankings of European countries, List of European countries by GDP (nominal), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "The European union—a federation or a confederation? The population of France was reduced by half. Padraic Kenney "A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989" (2002) pp 109. Michael A. Barry: "L'Europe et son mythe : à la poursuite du couchant". [16][17][18] Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. C. Scribner, p. 400, "One decisive action might have forced Philip II to the negotiating table and avoided fourteen years of continuing warfare. [213] Similarly, northern parts of Scotland have a temperate marine climate. The amount of natural forest in Western Europe is just 2–3% or less, in European Russia 5–10%. [28] Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia. In McKitterick, Rosamund. In 1721, he produced a more up to date map that was easier to read. [241] The majority of Central and Eastern European states came under the control of the Soviet Union and thus were members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON).[242]. [257], Europe is home to the highest number of migrants of all global regions at 70.6 million people, the IOM's report said. [44] However, most geographers in the Soviet Union favoured the boundary along the Caucasus crest[45] and this became the common convention in the later 20th century, although the Kuma–Manych boundary remained in use in some 20th-century maps. According to UN population projection, Europe's population may fall to about 7% of world population by 2050, or 653 million people (medium variant, 556 to 777 million in low and high variants, respectively). The average number of children per female of child-bearing age is 1.52. Der Europarat – englisch Council of Europe (CoE), französisch Conseil de l’Europe (CdE) – ist eine am 5. Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia). The yearly average temperature in city of Inverness is 9.05 °C (48.29 °F). [185] In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. The hegemony of the vast Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had ended with the devastation brought by the Second Northern War (Deluge) and subsequent conflicts;[139] the state itself was partitioned and ceased to exist at the end of the 18th century.[140]. [46] Other hominin remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, Spain. In June 1944, British and American forces invaded France in the D-Day landings, opening a new front against Germany. They established the state of the Golden Horde with headquarters in Crimea, which later adopted Islam as a religion and ruled over modern-day southern and central Russia for more than three centuries. [79][80] Further East, Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in the 10th century, but was eventually absorbed into Russia several centuries later.[81]. In addition, there is new impetus from the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative across the Suez Canal towards Africa and Asia. [59] By 200 BCE, Rome had conquered Italy, and over the following two centuries it conquered Greece and Hispania (Spain and Portugal), the North African coast, much of the Middle East, Gaul (France and Belgium), and Britannia (England and Wales). This territory, under the Arabic name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad Caliphate. After the staggering Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, the German offensive in the Soviet Union turned into a continual fallback. Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by the population of the member states of the European Union (EU). After East and West Germany were reunited in 1990, the economy of West Germany struggled as it had to support and largely rebuild the infrastructure of East Germany. The large water masses of the Mediterranean Sea, which equalize the temperatures on an annual and daily average, are also of particular importance. Among Protestants, the most popular are historically state-supported European denominations such as Lutheranism, Anglicanism and the Reformed faith. [286], Sport in Europe tends to be highly organized with many sports having professional leagues. Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492, and Vasco da Gama opened the ocean route to the East linking the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in 1498. [66] Renaissance thinkers such as Petrarch would later refer to this as the "Dark Ages". The Battle of Kursk, which involved the largest tank battle in history, was the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front. The Middle Ages on the mainland were dominated by the two upper echelons of the social structure: the nobility and the clergy. However, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, is on roughly the same latitude and has an average temperature of −6.5 °C (20.3 °F), giving it a nearly subarctic climate. As a result, the Reconquista took the greater part of eight hundred years, in which period a long list of Alfonsos, Sanchos, Ordoños, Ramiros, Fernandos and Bermudos would be fighting their Christian rivals as much as the Muslim invaders. 1999. There are a particularly high number of self-described non-religious people in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden, former East Germany, and France. Membership in the Eurozone would no longer be perceived as irrevocable. [142] Among the great figures of the Western scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries were Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Isaac Newton. [211] Its maritime borders consist of the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas to the south. [111], The plague had a devastating effect on Europe's social structure; it induced people to live for the moment as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron (1353). [60] The Greek political ideals were rediscovered in the late 18th century by European philosophers and idealists. However, no coordinated attempt would be made to drive the Moors out. Vertrag von Nizza. The northern plain contains the old geological continent of Baltica, and so may be regarded geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and mountainous regions in the south and west constitute fragments from various other geological continents. 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