[252] The Indologist Alexander Senkevich stated that Blavatsky's charisma exerted influence on Charles Massey and Stainton Moses. Ook haar geloof in het bestaan van occulte broederschappen, die een zeer oude universele wijsheid hadden weten te bewaren wordt in die artikelen duidelijk. De armen en handen van de baviaan hielden een exemplaar van Darwin's, De alchemische bruiloft van Christiaan Rozenkruis, HPB: Het bijzondere leven en de invloed van Helena Blavatsky, H.P. De meeste daarvan erkennen echter het werk van Blavatsky als de kern van hun opvattingen. Della Penna was in die periode hoofd van de missie van de kapucijnen in Tibet. After leaving the movement she said "She taught me one great lesson. [49] This marked the start of nine years spent traveling the world, possibly financed by her father. Het boekwerk bestaat uit twee delen. [258] Conversely, Meade thought Blavatsky to be "basically a non-political person".[259]. Enkele biografen gaan ervan uit, dat zij in deze periode, behalve een kort verblijf in Egypte, Europa niet verlaten heeft. In haar latere geschriften vermeldde zij, dat zij in deze periode veel tijd doorbracht in de bibliotheek van haar grootvader die veel boeken over esoterie bevatte. She gained an international following as the leading theoretician of Theosophy, the movement known by the slogan "There is no religion higher than truth". Whilst he was willing to give her credit for good motives, at least at the beginning of her career, in his view she ceased to be truthful both to herself and to others with her later "hysterical writings and performances". Thus, in bringing these Theosophical ideas to humanity, Blavatsky viewed herself as a messianic figure.[245]. Haar vader was beroepsmilitair en als gevolg daarvan was er sprake van frequente verhuizingen en verplaatsingen naar andere delen van het Russische rijk. [355] Blavatsky believed that Indian religion offered answers to problems then facing Westerners; in particular, she believed that Indian religion contained an evolutionary cosmology which complemented Darwinian evolutionary theory, and that the Indian doctrine of reincarnation met many of the moral qualms surrounding vicarious atonement and eternal damnation that preoccupied 19th-century Westerners. Na enkele maanden vroeg Betaneli echtscheiding aan, die pas in 1878 werd uitgesproken. In 1875 New York City, Blavatsky co-founded the Theosophical Society with Olcott and William Quan Judge. [33], She later claimed that in Saratov she discovered the personal library of her maternal great-grandfather, Prince Pavel Vasilevich Dolgorukov (d. 1838); it contained a variety of books on esoteric subjects, encouraging her burgeoning interest in it. Het echtpaar werd tijdens het verblijf van Blavatsky in Europa door de gevormde Raad van Bestuur wegens vermeend wangedrag ontslagen. [46] Although she tried to back out shortly before the wedding ceremony, the marriage took place on 7 July 1849. Zij was van opvatting, dat het spiritualisme zoals dat in Noord-Amerika werd beoefend wel nuttig was als tegenwicht tegen de overheersende materialistische opvattingen, maar dat dit echte occulte kennis ontbeerde. [170] Sinnett summarised the teachings contained in these letters in his book Esoteric Buddhism (1883), although scholars of Buddhism like Max Müller publicly highlighted that the contents were not Buddhist, and Blavatsky herself disliked the misleading title. [163] Blavatsky and Olcott were then invited to Ceylon by Buddhist monks. Wright en W.R. Old. In haar seances maakte Blavatsky gebruik van een door haar op te roepen geestverschijning met de naam John King, die claimde de personificatie te zijn van de geest van Henry Morgan, een boekanier uit de zeventiende eeuw. De dag van haar overlijden wordt in de theosofische beweging jaarlijks herdacht als Witte Lotusdag. Het laatste boek werd het standaardwerk van de theosofische beweging, waarvan zij de grondlegger was. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891) was the first person in modern times to claim contact with certain Eastern Adepts or Mahatmas. This primordial essence then separated itself into seven Rays, which were also intelligent beings known as the Dhyan Chohans; these Seven Rays then created the universe using an energy called Fohat. Blavatsky legde haar taak als corresponderend secretaris neer en vertrok wegens redenen van gezondheid in maart 1885 weer naar Europa. Veel biografen zetten de ontvankelijkheid voor de ideeën van Blavatsky bij sommige groepen in – met name – de Amerikaanse en Britse samenleving in onder meer het kader van de nieuwe wetenschappelijke ontdekkingen van de negentiende eeuw. Lewis, James R., and J. Gordon Melton, eds. . G. R. S. Mead wrote about Blavatsky, "I know no one who detested, more than she did, any attempt to hero-worship herself – she positively physically shuddered at any expression of reverence to herself – as a spiritual teacher; I have heard her cry out in genuine alarm at an attempt to kneel to her made by an enthusiastic admirer. [195] By 1885, the Theosophical Society had experienced rapid growth, with 121 lodges having been chartered across the world, 106 of which were located in India, Burma, and Ceylon. 94 $13.99 $13.99. Blavatsky beschreef de Mahatma's als stervelingen, die echter een intellectueel en spiritueel niveau hadden dat veel hoger was dan van alle andere personen in de wereld. By the early 1870s, Blavatsky was involved in the Spiritualist movement; although defending the genuine existence of Spiritualist phenomena, she argued against the mainstream Spiritualist idea that the entities contacted were the spirits of the dead. [14] As well as her Russian and German ancestry, Blavatsky could also claim French heritage, for a great-great grandfather had been a French Huguenot nobleman who had fled to Russia to escape persecution, there serving in the court of Catherine the Great. [145] This was despite the fact that new lodges of the organisation had been established throughout the U.S. and in London, and prominent figures like Thomas Edison and Abner Doubleday had joined. [107] Indeed, it was while in New York that "detailed records" of Blavatsky's life again become available to historians. "No single organization or movement has contributed so many components to the New Age Movement as the Theosophical Society. During the 1920s the Theosophical Society Adyar had around 7,000 members in the U.S.[338] There also was a substantial following in Asia. [239] She lived simply and her followers believed that she refused to accept monetary payment in return for disseminating her teachings. [305], Blavatsky was a highly controversial figure,[306] and attitudes toward her were typically polarized into extreme camps, one uncritically idolizing her as a holy guru and the other expressing complete disdain for her as a charlatan. As for Christianity, her main dislike was toward Roman Catholicism and missionary Protestantism. De eeuwigheid van het Heelal in toto als een grenzeloos gebied, periodiek ‘het toneel van talloze Heelallen die zich onophoudelijk manifesteren en weer verdwijnen’ en die ‘de zich manifesterende sterren’ en ‘de vonken van de eeuwigheid’ worden genoemd. [66] Sailing to the U.S., she visited New York City, where she met up with Rawson, before touring Chicago, Salt Lake City, and San Francisco, and then sailing back to India via Japan. [149] In December, the duo auctioned off many of their possessions, although Edison gifted them a phonograph to take with them to India. While she provided various conflicting accounts of how they met, locating it in both London and Ramsgate according to separate stories, she maintained that he claimed that he had a special mission for her, and that she must travel to Tibet. Although opposed by the British administration, Theosophy spread rapidly in India but experienced internal problems after Blavatsky was accused of producing fraudulent paranormal phenomena. [148] Unhappy with life in the U.S., Blavatsky decided to move to India, with Olcott agreeing to join her, securing work as a U.S. trade representative to the country. [140] Relocating to the United States in 1873, she befriended Henry Steel Olcott and rose to public attention as a spirit medium, attention that included public accusations of fraudulence. Solovjov was als theosoof teleurgesteld dat Blavatsky hem geen 'verschijnselen' leerde voort te brengen. Helena Blavatsky, también conocida como Madame Blavatsky, (Yekaterinoslav, 12 de agosto de 1831-Londres, 8 de mayo de 1891), fue una escritora, ocultista y teósofa rusa.Su nombre de soltera era Helena von Hahn, y tras un breve matrimonio con Nikiphor Blavatsky adoptó el nombre Helena Petrovna Blavatskaya —Елена Петровна Блаватская, en ruso— [42] Blavatsky claimed that here she established a friendship with Alexander Vladimirovich Golitsyn, a Russian Freemason and member of the Golitsyn family who encouraged her interest in esoteric matters. She subscribed to the anti-Christian current of thought within Western esotericism which emphasized the idea of an ancient and universal "occult science" that should be revived. 'Ik weet niet wie de Mahatma Brieven schreef, maar ik vind het niet aannemelijk dat Mw. [109] In December 1874, Blavatsky met the Georgian Mikheil Betaneli. [361], Blavatsky "both incorporated a number of the doctrines of eastern religions into her occultism, and interpreted eastern religions in the light of her occultism", in doing so extending a view of the "mystical East" that had already been popularized through Romanticist poetry. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (August 12, 1831—May 8, 1891) was a Russian spiritualist and philosopher and co-founder of theosophy, a religious philosophy based on a combination of Asian beliefs and occultism.Though considered by many to be a fraud, Blavatsky produced several major books, including "Isis Unveiled" and "The Secret Doctrine." In haar tijd was een bibliografie in boeken ongebruikelijk en ze vermelde voornamelijk 'primaire bronnen' en geen 'secundaire bronnen'. [214] In 1888, Blavatsky established the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society, a group under her complete control for which admittance was restricted to those who had passed certain tests. [76][77] She then proceeded to Italy, Transylvania, and Serbia, possibly studying the Cabalah with a rabbi at this point. Blavatsky beschreef theosofie als een synthese van wetenschap, religie en filosofie en stelde dat die gebaseerd was op een oude wijsheidsreligie, die de basis was van de huidige wereldreligies. Enkele decennia na haar overlijden versplinterde de theosofische beweging in meerdere stromingen. [345] Nevertheless, Lachman has asserted that Blavatsky should not be held accountable to any of the antisemitic and racist ideas that the Ariosophists promoted, commenting that were she alive to witness the development of Ariosophy she probably would have denounced its ideas regarding race. [298] In Isis Unveiled, Blavatsky denied that humans would be reincarnated back on the Earth after physical death. [82] She also claimed that while in Tibet, Morya and Koot Hoomi helped her develop and control her psychic powers. Associating it closely with the esoteric doctrines of Hermeticism and Neoplatonism, Blavatsky described Theosophy as "the synthesis of science, religion and philosophy", proclaiming that it was reviving an "Ancient Wisdom" which underlay all the world's religions. [123] It was through this group that they met an Irish Spiritualist, William Quan Judge, who shared many of their interests. Reigle stelde daarnaast dat de Boeken van Kiu-te zoals beschreven in het werk van Della Penna geïdentificeerd dienden te worden met de sectie tantra's uit de kangyur, het belangrijkste deel van de canon van het Tibetaans boeddhisme. Mme Blavatsky has drawn heavily upon Knorr von Rosenroth’s Kabbala Denudata (1677-1684), which contains (vol. [38] According to this story, in London she received piano lessons from the Bohemian composer Ignaz Moscheles, and performed with Clara Schumann. Tijdens de seances werden de opgeroepen geesten ondervraagd over onderwerpen als wetenschap, geschiedenis en filosofie. [28], The three surviving children were sent to live with their maternal grandparents in Saratov, where their grandfather Andrei had been appointed Governor of Saratov Governorate. As a matter of fact, H.P.B. "[282], —Historian Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, 2008. Get it as soon as Thu, Jan 7. [362] In 1866 reisde Blavatsky met Yuri en Metrovich naar Bologna voor een medische behandeling van het kind. [154] Her activity in the city was monitored by British intelligence services, who suspected that she was working for Russia. Zij richtte samen met enkele anderen in New York in 1875 de Theosophical Society op. [91] Conversely, biographer Marion Meade commented on Blavatsky's tales of Tibet and various other adventures by stating that "hardly a word of this appears to be true". A page dedicated to the writings of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). Ook de meest kritische biografen erkennen echter dat zij een belangrijke rol heeft gespeeld in de opkomende westerse belangstelling in de negentiende eeuw voor hindoeïsme, boeddhisme en filosofisch gedachtegoed uit het Oosten meer in het algemeen. The society's Board of Control had accused Emma Coulomb of misappropriating their funds for her own purposes, and asked her to leave their center. Blavatsky leefde in deze periode in armoedige omstandigheden en Cutting gaf haar enige financiële ondersteuning. Moreover, inspired by recent acrimonious debates over evolution, they are also dynamic, emergent forces. "[206], In 1886, by which time she was largely wheelchair-bound, Blavatsky moved to Ostend in Belgium, where she was visited by Theosophists from across Europe. Begin 1861 kreeg Blavatsky de zorg voor een kind met de naam Yuri. In oktober dat jaar kwam de eerste uitgave van het tijdschrift The Theosophist uit. '[9] Harrison zag in zijn rapport af van een finaal oordeel wie de Mahatmabrieven dan wel geschreven had. Onbekend met het artikel van Spierenburg kwam enkele jaren later de Amerikaanse theosoof David Reigle tot dezelfde conclusie. [141] Although facing negative mainstream press reviews, including from those who highlighted that it extensively quoted around 100 other books without acknowledgement,[142] it proved to be such a commercial success, with its initial print run of 1,000 copies selling out in a week,[143] that the publisher requested a sequel, although Blavatsky turned down the offer. Zij zou bedoeld zijn als een serieuze studiegroep. [219] Buddhologist David Reigle claimed that he identified Books of Kiu-te, including Blavatsky's Book of Dzyan as a first volume, as the Tantra section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon. [159], In July 1879, Blavatsky and Olcott began work on a monthly magazine, The Theosophist, with the first issue coming out in October. [289] The Atlanteans were decadent and abused their power and knowledge, so Atlantis sunk into the sea, although various Atlanteans escaped and created new societies in Egypt and the Americas. [165] Touring the island, they were met by crowds intrigued by these unusual Westerners who embraced Buddhism rather than proselytizing Christianity. Massey, and William L. Alden; many were prominent and successful members of the establishment, although not all would remain members for long. Vanaf medio 1875 begon Blavatsky aan het schrijven van haar eerste boek dat in 1877 zou uitkomen. Ongeveer een jaar later merkte Kiddle, dat hele passages van zijn speech vrijwel letterlijk overgenomen waren in een aan Alfred Percy Sinnett gerichte Mahatmabrief van Koot Hoomi, gepubliceerd in The occult world van Sinnett. [340] Godwin deemed there to be "no more important figure in modern times" within the Western esoteric tradition than Blavatsky. . According to Goodrick-Clarke, the Theosophical Society "disseminated an elaborate philosophical edifice involving a cosmogony, the macrocosm of the universe, spiritual hierarchies, and intermediary beings, the latter having correspondences with a hierarchical conception of the microcosm of man. [5] The accounts of her early life provided by her family members have also been considered dubious by biographers. [335] Further, it took the traditional sources of Western esotericism and globalized them by restating many of their ideas in terminology adopted from Asian religions. Hier zou ze ook de eerste visioenen ontvangen waarin ze een mysterieuze Indiër ontmoette, die zij later als de Mahatma Morya leerde kennen. In Elberfeld werd de Theosophische Societät Germania opgericht. 0 Comments ‘De geheime leer: de synthese van wetenschap, religie en filosofie’ is een gigantisch boekwerk dat in de 19e eeuw geschreven werd door Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). [83] She claimed to have remained on this spiritual retreat from late 1868 until late 1870. [363][c] Blavatsky, it seemed to Thomas Müller, "was either deceived by others or carried away by her own imaginations. [289], The fifth Root Race to emerge was the Aryans and was found across the world at the time she was writing. [67] There, she spent time in Kashmir, Ladakh, and Burma, before making a second attempt to enter Tibet. Dat is een werk dat in India in de tiende eeuw ontstond en de laatste tantra die in dat land geschreven werd. Reigle acht het waarschijnlijk dat het hier zou handelen om de Kalachakratantra. This seems to me, indeed, the true ‘etymology’ of the hitherto unexplained title. She and her husband refused, blackmailing the society with letters that they claimed were written by Blavatsky and which proved that her paranormal abilities were fraudulent. [297] Later Blavatsky proclaimed the septenary of Man and Universe. She also claimed that during this period she encountered a group of spiritual adepts, the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom", who sent her to Shigatse, Tibet, where they trained her to develop a deeper understanding of the synthesis of religion, philosophy, and science. [51] Thus, historian of esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke noted that public knowledge of these travels rests upon "her own largely uncorroborated accounts", which are marred by being "occasionally conflicting in their chronology". While she acknowledged that fanatic believers "remained blind to its imperfections", she wrote that such a fact was "no excuse to doubt its reality" and asserted that Spiritualist fanaticism was "itself a proof of the genuineness and possibility of their phenomena". Blavatsky claimde dat de Mahatma's haar hadden geselecteerd om als intermediair op te treden tussen de in Tibet aanwezige wijsheid en de westerse wereld. Eind 1883 reageerde Blavatsky met een volledige ontkenning van ook maar enig plagiaat. Helena (či Jelena) Petrovna Blavatská, za svobodna Helena Petrovna von Hahn-Rottenstern, známá jako „Madame Blavatská“ (12. srpen, 1831, Jekatěrinoslav, Novorusko, Ruské impérium (dnes Dnipro na Ukrajině) – 8. květen 1891, Londýn, Velká Británie) byla významná osobnost duchovního života poloviny a konce 19. století a zakladatelka Theosofické společnosti Het was ook hier in Caïro, dat zij voor het eerst Emma Cutting ontmoette, die later in India als de inmiddels gehuwde Emma Coulomb verantwoordelijk zou zijn voor de beschuldigingen inzake onder meer de Mahatmabrieven. He stated that "without her charismatic leadership and uncompromising promotion of the Theosophical agenda, it appears unlikely that the movement could have attained its unique form. In september 1875 werd door Blavatsky, Olcott en Judge de Theosophical Society opgericht. Het meest omstreden in dit reisprogramma is haar meerdere keren herhaalde bewering dat zij in deze periode enige malen in Tibet voor een duur van in totaal zeven jaar is geweest. She did much to spread Eastern religious, philosophical and occult concepts throughout the Western world. Via de Miracle Club ontmoette zij ook William Quan Judge.[3]. Daar schreef zij nog  De sleutel tot de theosofie en in 1889 kwam een al eerder geschreven werk uit, De stem van de stilte, gekozen fragmenten uit het Boek van de Gulden Voorschriften. [355] [85], Many critics and biographers have expressed doubt about the veracity of Blavatsky's claims regarding her visits to Tibet, which rely entirely on her own claims, lacking any credible independent testimony. [30] Accounts provided by relatives reveal that she socialized largely with lower-class children and that she enjoyed playing pranks and reading. Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna 1831-1891). Zij reisde met Metrovich op de SS Eumonia naar Alexandrië. Collected Writings vol. Zij schreef in dat jaar ook de laatste hoofdstukken van De geheime leer, dat het standaardwerk in de theosofie zou worden. [50], She did not keep a diary at the time, and was not accompanied by relatives who could verify her activities. In his report, Hodgson accused Blavatsky of being a spy for the Russian government, further accusing her of faking paranormal phenomena, largely on the basis of the Coulomb's claims. [70] She returned to Europe via Madras and Java. Wij zijn niet verbaasd over de ernstige kritiek van deze geleerde wetenschapper. Blavatsky wrote, in Isis Unveiled, that Spiritualism "alone offers a possible last refuge of compromise between" the "revealed religions and materialistic philosophies". [72] She later claimed that there she began to exhibit further paranormal abilities, with rapping and creaking accompanying her around the house and furniture moving of its own volition. In 1864, while riding in Mingrelia, Blavatsky fell from her horse and was in a coma for several months with a spinal fracture. [7] Her birth date was 12 August 1831, although according to the Julian calendar used in 19th-century Russia it was 31 July. [274] In turn, Blavatsky believed that the Theosophical movement's revival of the "ancient wisdom religion" would lead to it spreading across the world, eclipsing the established world religions. In 1888 stichtte Blavatsky de Esoterische Sectie van de Theosofische Vereniging. . Daar hoorde zij van de beschuldigingen van fraude en bedrog die in Adyar geuit waren. Blavatsky connected this ancient wisdom religion to Hermetic philosophy, a worldview in which everything in the universe is identified as an emanation from a Godhead. De SPR financierde de Engelse uitgave van A Modern Priestess of Isis (1895), dat sindsdien door critici van HPB wordt beschouwd als een van de voornaamste bronnen over haar leven. Alleen ingewijden die ook bepaalde proeven succesvol hadden gehaald kregen toestemming de bijeenkomsten van de sectie bij te wonen. Al na enkele seances werd Blavatsky door aanwezigen beschuldigd van het manipuleren van occulte fenomenen en het bezoek aan de Société nam sterk af. Kiddle was een Amerikaan met enige interesse in spiritualisme, die in augustus 1880 tijdens een zomerkamp een speech had gehouden. Blavatsky werd geboren als Helena Petrovna von Hahn in Jekaterinoslav in de huidige Oekraïne. [310] Carl Jung virulently criticized her work. [257] Meade thought that Blavatsky had, with a few exceptions, been "contemptuous" of other women, suggesting that while this may have been the result of general societal misogyny, it may have reflected that Blavatsky had been jilted by another woman. [81], She claimed that in Tibet, she was taught an ancient, unknown language known as Senzar, and translated a number of ancient texts written in this language that were preserved by the monks of a monastery; she stated that she was, however, not permitted entry into the monastery itself. [54], She later claimed that in Constantinople she developed a friendship with a Hungarian opera singer named Agardi Metrovitch, whom she first encountered when saving him from being murdered. [97] In Cairo, she also met with the Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, and another of the Masters, Serapis Bey. The escorts accompanied her to Poti and then Kerch, intending to continue with her to Odessa. Koot Hoomi was described as having spent time in London and Leipzig, being fluent in both English and French, and like Morya was a vegetarian. The solemn and magniloquent style of these pages may well have impressed her susceptible mind. Blavatsky: Geselecteerde artikelen – deel 3, West Turns Eastward:Madame Blavatsky and the Transformation of the Occult Tradition, Spiritualism and a Mid-Victorian Crisis of Evidence, Helena Blavatsky and the Enigma of John King, The Sources of Madame Blavatsky's Writings, Nederlandse Thesaurus van Auteursnamen Persoon ID, https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Helena_Blavatsky&oldid=58392969, Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen. On May 8, 1891 in London, at the age of 60, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky passed away. Het tweede deel (Anthropogenesis) verklaart de oorsprong en ontwikkeling van de mensheid door een beschrijving van de zogenaamde wortelrassen. Er zijn drie verhandelingen, over zeden en de beginselen daarvan van de Mongoolse en Dravidische mystici'.[14]. Adyar, Madras, India: Theosophical Publishing House, 1941, p. 477} In a passage in Isis Unveiled, Blavatsky praised the Jews: "Nor should we compel the Jews to do penance for their fathers. Gedurende de perioden in Tibet bestudeerde zij onder leiding van de Mahatma's onder meer de stanza's van Dzyan, geschreven in de geheime taal Senzar. [343][344] Hannah Newman stated that via Ariosophy, Blavatsky's Theosophical ideas "contributed to Nazi ideology". [220] However, most scholars of Buddhism to have examined The Secret Doctrine have concluded that there was no such text as the Book of Dzyan, and that instead it was the fictional creation of Blavatsky's. Inspired by the novels of James Fenimore Cooper, she sought out the Native American communities of Quebec in the hope of meeting their magico-religious specialists, but was instead robbed, later attributing these Natives' behavior to the corrupting influence of Christian missionaries. In augustus verbleef zij in Duitsland. An extensive online bibliography, dating from 1908 to 2001, with section for "Internet Resources", This page was last edited on 27 March 2021, at 18:00. [289][294] She believed that the fifth Race would come to be replaced by the sixth, which would be heralded by the arrival of Maitreya, a figure from Mahayana Buddhist mythology. Below is an overview of … [232], The biographer Peter Washington described Blavatsky as "a short, stout, forceful woman, with strong arms, several chins, unruly hair, a determined mouth, and large, liquid, slightly bulging eyes".