The ethnic group with the patients whose SLE occurs at an older age are Caucasians [17]. Current topics are in particular social and cultural differentiation, multilingualism, competing identity offers, multiple cultural identities and the formation of Salad bowl and melting pot. Ethnic groups in central Mali sign ‘three peace agreements’ Accords bring together Fulani and Dogon communities who have historic tensions over access to land and water. [29], Another influential theoretician of ethnicity was Fredrik Barth, whose "Ethnic Groups and Boundaries" from 1969 has been described as instrumental in spreading the usage of the term in social studies in the 1980s and 1990s. Table 2 shows the diversity of ethnic groups recorded in the 2011 Census, based on ethnic groups that were chosen from the list categories, or what people had written into the ‘Any other’ field. (3.) Its chief historic significance has been and remains its relationship to the nation-state, whose primary goal is political unity, which tends to be identified with social unity. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "ethnic and social groups" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. A group of people who share a common race, religion, language, or other characteristic. Ethnic diversity is one form of the social complexity found in most contemporary societies. Major Ethnic Groups Of Kazakhstan Kazakhs . Another way of dealing with ethnic diversity, one that holds more promise for the future, is the development of some form of pluralism, which usually rests on a combination of toleration, interdependence, and separatism. Ethnic diversity is one form of the social complexity found in most contemporary societies. Ethnic groups may be subdivided into subgroups or tribes, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Musicology, The Key Concepts. An ethnic group is a distinct category of the population in a larger society whose culture is usually different from its own. Identities within Global Coloniality", "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15", "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland", "Serbian Government – Official Presentation", "Beogradski centar za ljudska prava – Belgrade Centre for Human Rights", "Ethnicity, Race, and a Possible Humanity", "Another Look at Ethnicity as a Biological Concept: Moving Anthropology Beyond the Race Concept", American Psychological Association's Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs,, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles lacking reliable references from July 2017, Articles needing additional references from January 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with empty sections from August 2018, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Others, like Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka, argue that the notion of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct. (Bern) 2006. p 15. Secondly, this belief in shared Gemeinschaft did not create the group; the group created the belief. Similar methods were employed by their French contemporaries as they extended their conquests into the langue d’oc region of southern Europe. That complexity developed from a lengthy... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. That complexity developed from a lengthy and involved process of migration and intermarriage. These mostly originate with the Sahelian kingdoms of the medieval period, such as that of the Akan, deriving from Bonoman (11th century) then the Hobyo Sultanate (17th century).[67]. Beard, David and Kenneth Gloag. The extermination of Jews and Gypsies during World War II under the Nazi regime is a classic example of the persecution of people to dispose of ‘‘undesired’’ ethnic groups; hence, it is claimed, deterring potential ethnic discord. Examples for the second case are countries such as Netherlands, which were relatively ethnically homogeneous when they attained statehood but have received significant immigration during the second half of the 20th century. Some groups are primarily hunter-gatherers, some practice transhumance (nomadic lifestyle), others have been agrarian/rural for millennia and others becoming industrial/urban. White Europeans, or the White British people, are a racial classification for the people belonging to various ethnic European ancestries. Full Text. A group of people who share a … The ethnicity question in the 2011 Census in Scotland asked people to choose from the following 19 ethnic groups: White. The Kazakhs are the largest ethnic group in Kazakhstan with an estimated population of 11 million people as of 2007. There are eight peoples of Europe (defined by their language) with more than 30 million members residing in Europe. The Black Africans, of which the Nguni and Sotho groups account for 90% of the Black population. The 19th century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism, when the concept of race was tied to nationalism, first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried von Herder. Singapore Residents By Age Group, Ethnic Group And Gender, End June, Annual Ministry of Trade and Industry - Department of Statistics / 18 Jul 2020 Data for 1970 and from 1980 onwards refer to Singapore residents (citizens and permanent residents). The ethnicity theory was based on the assimilation model. ‘French is the official language, but there are as many languages as ethnic groups.’ ‘They are the largest minority ethnic group in Scotland.’ ‘The two largest ethnic groups were Germans (10 million) and Hungarians (9 million).’ ‘South Sulawesi is inhabited by four main ethnic groups: Bugis, Makassar, Mandar, and Toraja.’ ", "David Konstan, "Defining Ancient Greek Ethnicity", Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. What’s hopeful about these latter results, Lowery says, is that a change in viewpoint toward another ethnic group can come from within a social group through positive and appealing role models who exhibit justice-minded attitudes — an important factor given that widespread segregation often makes it difficult for various groups to interact. Examples of various approaches are primordialism, essentialism, perennialism, constructivism, modernism, and instrumentalism. Cite as: Cornelia Klocker, “Empowerment of indigenous and ethnic groups: Comparing cases on land use under the ACHPR and ECHR”, Völkerrechtsblog, 30 September 2019, doi: 10.17176/20190930-232550-0. [28], Max Weber maintained that ethnic groups were künstlich (artificial, i.e. [63], According to Wolf, racial categories were constructed and incorporated during the period of European mercantile expansion, and ethnic groupings during the period of capitalist expansion. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, ethnic group - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The group’s ethos or ideology may also stress common ancestry, religion, or race.. A variant of this process has been the more or less voluntary assimilation achieved in the United States under the rubric of “Americanization.” This is largely a result of the unusual opportunities for social and economic mobility in the United States and of the fact that for the European ethnic groups, in contrast to the racial minorities, residence in the United States was a matter of individual or familial choice, not conquest or slavery. I used ethnic group because it was the closest term, and because a singular headline is important, but I also mentioned national groups because many of these are both ethnic groups and national groups. Members of excluded groups, consequently, will either demand inclusion based on equality or seek autonomy, sometimes even to the extent of complete political separation in their nation-state. [19][irrelevant citation]. 6, 1 (1997), pp. The great urban culture of the Indus civilization, a society of the Indus…, Although ethnic Russians comprise more than four-fifths of the country’s total population, Russia is a diverse, multiethnic society. Before Weber (1864-1920), race and ethnicity were primarily seen as two aspects of the same thing. A group called the General Strike Committee of Nationalities (GSCN) was established to support the protests and be a central place for the many protesting ethnic minorities. Russia has over 185 recognized ethnic groups besides the 80% ethnic Russian majority. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major racial categories: (1.) Sometimes these contradictions are destructive, but they can also be creative and positive.[31]. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group", mostly translated as "nation, people"; only in Hellenistic Greek did the term tend to become further narrowed to refer to "foreign" or "barbarous" nations in particular (whence the later meaning "heathen, pagan"). The process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. He wanted to part with anthropological notions of cultures as bounded entities, and ethnicity as primordialist bonds, replacing it with a focus on the interface between groups. Barth writes: "... categorical ethnic distinctions do not depend on an absence of mobility, contact, and information, but do entail social processes of exclusion and incorporation whereby discrete categories are maintained despite changing participation and membership in the course of individual life histories.". In theory, the nation-state and ethnic diversity are diametrically opposed, and on many occasions nation-states have attempted to solve the problem of ethnic diversity by the elimination or expulsion of ethnic groups—notable examples being the Nazi policy against the Jews during World War II, the expulsion of the Moors and Jews from 15th-century Spain, or the expulsion of the Arabs and East Indians from … (2.) Each SHG also conducts programmes specifically to meet the needs of their communities. Thus, the conflicts are often misleadingly labeled and characterized as civil wars when they are inter-ethnic conflicts in a multi-ethnic state. After World War II the rising tide of democratic aspirations among the colonial peoples of Asia and Africa led to the breakup of empires established by European conquerors, sometimes in areas of enormous ethnic complexity, without regard to ethnic considerations. It is estimated that the Indo-Aryans first migrated to the Indian Subcontinent of South Asia around 1800 BCE. The Whites who account for about 13% of the population. This was a notion that developed slowly and came to be a preoccupation with scientists, theologians, and the public. 1987. The sense of "different cultural groups", and in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s,[10] serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism. The colonization of Asia was largely ended in the 20th century, with national drives for independence and self-determination across the continent. An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with each other through a common heritage, which generally consists of a common culture and shared language or dialect. Most of the new countries in Asia were relatively homogeneous, but the majority of those in sub-Saharan Africa were composed of many relatively small ethnic groups whose members spoke different languages. Third, group formation resulted from the drive to monopolize power and status. Morales-Díaz, Enrique; Gabriel Aquino; & Michael Sletcher, "Ethnicity", in Michael Sletcher, ed.. Seeger, A. [41], Ethnic groups can form a cultural mosaic in a society. The largest group is the Tatars 3.8%. According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates until recently. Many of these groups…. Some ethnicities don’t have their nation and state like Gypsies. Religious institutions asked questions about whether there had been multiple genesis's (polygenesis) and whether God had created lesser races of men. Below, we take a closer look at a few of these different Chinese ethnic groups. The concept of “ethnic groups” will in this context include national minorities, immigrants and peoples indigenous to Norway. ThiE. German American is the most common ethnic group in over half the states. Each promoted the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been inhabited by ethnic Germans. Ethnic group, a social group or category of the population that, in a larger society, is set apart and bound together by common ties of race, language, nationality, or culture. It is, nevertheless, the process of labor mobilization under capitalism that imparts to these distinctions their effective values. In theory, the nation-state and ethnic diversity are diametrically opposed, and on many occasions nation-states have attempted to solve the problem of ethnic diversity by the elimination or expulsion of ethnic groups—notable examples being the Nazi policy against the Jews during World War II, the expulsion of the Moors and Jews from 15th-century Spain, or the expulsion of the Arabs and East Indians from several newly independent African countries in the 1960s and ’70s. YANGON — Development organizations and farming groups from ethnic minority areas have called on the government to postpone land reforms, saying they will crush indigenous people’s rights. Mixed ethnic group; Any other ethnic group; Scotland. The consequences of Nazi racism discouraged essentialist interpretations of ethnic groups and race. Thus, anthropologist Joan Vincent observed that ethnic boundaries often have a mercurial character. Profile. China officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups, including the Han majority. In 1982, anthropologist David Craig Griffith summed up forty years of ethnographic research, arguing that racial and ethnic categories are symbolic markers for different ways that people from different parts of the world have been incorporated into a global economy: The opposing interests that divide the working classes are further reinforced through appeals to "racial" and "ethnic" distinctions. In North America, by contrast, '[race]' most commonly means color, and 'ethnics' are the descendants of relatively recent immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. Many of the foremost scientists of the time took up the idea of racial difference. Barth's view is that ethnic groups are not discontinuous cultural isolates or logical a priority to which people naturally belong. Grab a copy of our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! Merriam, A.P. When that is considered in the context of your nationality and race, it could be a strong indicator of your ethnicity. [50] Moreover, once the legal barriers to achieving equality had been dismantled, the problem of racism became the sole responsibility of already disadvantaged communities. The Vietnamese majority was significantly Sinicized during a millennium of Chinese rule, which ended in 939 ce. As an example, although some states collect detailed data on the national origins or religions of their residents, others consider these categories improper in official stati… One method that was used as the measurement of cranial capacity.[49]. Aihway Ong 1996 "Cultural Citizenship in the Making" in, Nira Yuval-Davis, "Gender & Nation" (London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 1997), Nira Yuval-Davis, "Gender & Nation" (London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 1997) pp. Tonkin, M. McDonald and M. Chapman. [64], Writing in 1977 about the usage of the term "ethnic" in the ordinary language of Great Britain and the United States, Wallman noted that, The term 'ethnic' popularly connotes '[race]' in Britain, only less precisely, and with a lighter value load. Files should either be in the relevant subcategory or in the parent category. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. Kolb, Eva. It seeks to promote racial integration in Singapore by allowing residents of different ethnicities to live together and interact on a regular basis in public housing, where 80% of … Eriksen "Ethnic identity, national identity and intergroup conflict: The significance of personal experiences" in Ashmore, Jussim, Wilder (eds. Social scientists have thus focused on how, when, and why different markers of ethnic identity become salient. The third largest ethnic group is African-American, at 24.9 million people. ): Banton, Michael. To Barth, ethnicity was perpetually negotiated and renegotiated by both external ascription and internal self-identification. [30], In this way, he pointed to the fact that identification of an ethnic group by outsiders, e.g. London and New York: Routledge. [65], In the U.S., the OMB states the definition of race as used for the purposes of the US Census is not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference".[66]. [50] The ethnicity paradigm neglects the ways that race can complicate a community's interactions with basic social and political structures, especially upon contact. According to Eriksen, these debates have been superseded, especially in anthropology, by scholars' attempts to respond to increasingly politicized forms of self-representation by members of different ethnic groups and nations. Punjabis are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group and they are the largest ethnic group in Pakistan by population, numbering approximately 110 million people and thus consisting of 50.0% of Pakistan's total population of 220 million in 2020. Walloons - an ethnic group speaking a dialect of French and living in southern and eastern Belgium and neighboring parts of France. Serbian province of Vojvodina is recognizable for its multi-ethnic and multi-cultural identity. For other uses, see, "Ethnicities" redirects here. [11] Depending on the context that is used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity or synonymously with citizenship (in a sovereign state). I. Polinskaya, "Shared sanctuaries and the gods of others: On the meaning Of 'common' in Herodotus 8.144", in R. Rosen & I. Sluiter (eds.). Ernest Gellner (1997) Nationalism. The largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom are looked at below. The term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos (more precisely, from the adjective ἐθνικός ethnikos,[7] which was loaned into Latin as ethnicus). These groups are incredibly culturally diverse; fifty-three ethnic groups have their own language and 23 have their own written language. Corrections? ), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established. "Notes on Midnight Basketball and the Cultural Politics of Recreation, Race and At-Risk Urban Youth". Aboriginal, Australian Aborigine, native Australian, Aborigine - a dark-skinned member of a race of people living in Australia when Europeans arrived. The ancient Indus Valley civilization in India was believed to have been of Dravidian origin in northern India, but then the Dravidian people were pushed south when the Indo-Aryans came in and the Kuru Kingdom in northern Indian arose. Russia has over 185 recognized ethnic groups besides the 80% ethnic Russian majority. [30] He agrees with Joan Vincent's observation that (in Cohen's paraphrase) "Ethnicity ... can be narrowed or broadened in boundary terms in relation to the specific needs of political mobilization. Ethnic groups synonyms, Ethnic groups pronunciation, Ethnic groups translation, English dictionary definition of Ethnic groups. According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state. What are the major things that make you feel as though you belong in a certain group? The result was a proliferation of national states, some of which experienced local conflicts with ethnic-related causes. A. Metraux (1950) "United Nations Economic and Security Council Statement by Experts on Problems of Race". Mindanao is the the 2nd largest group of island in the Philippines compose of waters and land specially mountains.It offers goods, views and activities which tourist will really enjoy. Carmen López Sáenz. '[Ethnic]' is not a noun in Britain. "Interculturalism: Between Identity and Diversity." One of the most notable long-term solutions has been that of Switzerland, where the three major ethnic groups are concentrated in separate cantons, each enjoying a large measure of local control within a democratic federation. Data prior to 1980 (except 1970) refer to total population. An example of a largely nomadic ethnic group in Europe is the Roma, pejoratively known as Gypsies. In some cases, especially involving transnational migration or colonial expansion, ethnicity is linked to nationality. Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the 19th-century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the 20th century Nazi Germany. The categories are designed to enable the majority of the population to identify themselves in a manageable way, and as a result they are restricted to those groups that make up the majority of the population. Camoroff, John L. and Jean Camoroff 2009: Ethnicity Inc.. Chicago: Chicago Press. Ethnic groups in Pakistan tend to be a bit easier to remember, since the word 'Pakistan' was created to represent the people who lived there - Punjabis, Afghans, Kashmiris, and the Sindh. Omissions? [55] Under these conditions – when people moved from one state to another,[56] or one state conquered or colonized peoples beyond its national boundaries – ethnic groups were formed by people who identified with one nation, but lived in another state. (Photo: REUTERS/Stringer) German American is the most common ethnic group in over half the states. Ethnography begins in classical antiquity; after early authors like Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus in c. 480 BC laid the foundation of both historiography and ethnography of the ancient world. Because serious errors of this kind are habitually committed when the term 'race' is used in popular parlance, it would be better when speaking of human races to drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups'."[62]. a social construct) because they were based on a subjective belief in shared Gemeinschaft (community). More common solutions have been assimilation or acculturation, whether forced, induced, or voluntary. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In one study [12], 59% of the younger SLE group were Black patients, whereas only 20% of Black patients were in the older age group (>50 years). [42] Ethnic groups differ from other social groups, such as subcultures, interest groups or social classes, because they emerge and change over historical periods (centuries) in a process known as ethnogenesis, a period of several generations of endogamy resulting in common ancestry (which is then sometimes cast in terms of a mythological narrative of a founding figure); ethnic identity is reinforced by reference to "boundary markers" – characteristics said to be unique to the group which set it apart from other groups.[43][44][45][46][47]. Ethnic Groups. Han Chinese: The Biggest Ethnic Group in the World. By way of language shift, acculturation, adoption and religious conversion, individuals or groups may over time shift from one ethnic group to another. Pages in category "Lists of ethnic groups" The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. They culminated in the rise of "nation-states" in which the presumptive boundaries of the nation coincided (or ideally coincided) with state boundaries. Define ethnic group. According to this view, the state should not acknowledge ethnic, national or racial identity but rather instead enforce political and legal equality of all individuals. Until the 20th century ethnic diversity posed no great problems for empires. [58] It is here that women act not just as biological reproducers but also as 'cultural carriers', transmitting knowledge and enforcing behaviors that belong to a specific collectivity. [8] The Greek term in early antiquity (Homeric Greek) could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. The members of such a group are, or feel themselves, or are thought to be, bound together by common ties of race or nationality or culture. Thus, in the West, the notion of ethnicity, like race and nation, developed in the context of European colonial expansion, when mercantilism and capitalism were promoting global movements of populations at the same time that state boundaries were being more clearly and rigidly defined. Cohen, Ronald. In recent decades feminist scholars (most notably Nira Yuval-Davis)[57] have drawn attention to the fundamental ways in which women participate in the creation and reproduction of ethnic and national categories. Nation-states, however, invariably include populations that have been excluded from national life for one reason or another. This was contrary to the prevailing naturalist belief of the time, which held that socio-cultural and behavioral differences between peoples stemmed from inherited traits and tendencies derived from common descent, then called "race". In effect there are no 'ethnics'; there are only 'ethnic relations'. Biological essentialism is the belief that white European races are biologically superior and other non-white races are inherently inferior. And assimilation – shedding the particular qualities of a native culture for the purpose of blending in with a host culture – did not work for some groups as a response to racism and discrimination as it did for others. Such appeals serve to allocate different categories of workers to rungs on the scale of labor markets, relegating stigmatized populations to the lower levels and insulating the higher echelons from competition from below. (1978) "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology". This is the main ethnic group in the country, accounting for 86.2% of Vietnam population and officially known as Kinh people to distinguish from the other ethnic minorities in Vietnam. In the 20th century, people began to argue that conflicts among ethnic groups or between members of an ethnic group and the state can and should be resolved in one of two ways. The nature of ethnicity is still debated by scholars. Kanchan Chandra rejects the expansive definitions of ethnic identity (such as those that include common culture, common language, common history and common territory), choosing instead to define ethnic identity narrowly as a subset of identity categories determined by the belief of common descent. The largest number of Germans are found in the Midwest, West, and Pennsylvania. An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. French (c. 60 million),[lower-alpha 3] 4. These elements comprise the culture to which you belong. Conversely, formerly separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may eventually merge into one single ethnicity. … The reasons for this unusual racial predilection for older-age SLE … This view arose as a way to justify slavery of Africans and genocide of the Native Americans in a society which was supposedly founded on freedom for all. There are numerous groups in the world and each nation will have its share of ethnicity. Ethnicity is often assumed to be the cultural identity of a group from a nation state, while race is assumed to be biological and/or cultural essentialization of a group hierarchy of superiority/inferiority related to their biological constitution. Some, like Jürgen Habermas and Bruce Barry, have argued that the legitimacy of modern states must be based on a notion of political rights of autonomous individual subjects. This meta category should only contain other categories. Ramón Grosfoguel (University of California, Berkeley) argues that “racial/ethnic identity” is one concept and that concepts of race and ethnicity cannot be used as separate and autonomous categories.[60]. Historically it is the legacy Ethnicity - cultural group of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of similarities such as a common language, ancestry, history, society, culture, etc. [59] Women also often play a significant symbolic role in conceptions of nation or ethnicity, for example in the notion that 'women and children' constitute the kernel of a nation which must be defended in times of conflict, or in iconic figures such as Britannia or Marianne.

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